Proteins are very large molecules (macromolecules).
Proteins are made of amino acids.
The DNA molecule and proteins
The DNA molecules has two functions:
- Contains "recipes" for proteins.
- Transfers the genetic material to the next generation.
This is sometimes called the central dogma of molecular genetics.
A certain segment of a DNA molecule, that contains a "recipe" for a protein is called a gene. The "recipe" consists of a code of nucleobases. This is why we say that a gene codes for a certain protein.
The code in the DNA molecule is rewritten (transcribed) as RNA.
- RNA polymerase synthesizes the RNA
When the RNA is synthesized, the nucleobases pair with each other.
In RNA, uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) pairs with adenine (A).
|DNA||Pairs with in RNA|